Compared with men, women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have a higher incidence of heart failure and worse outcomes. We investigated baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and response to mavacamten among women compared with men in the EXPLORER-HCM study (Clinical Study to Evaluate Mavacamten [MYK-461] in Adults With Symptomatic Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy). A prespecified post hoc analysis of sex from the blinded, randomized EXPLORER-HCM trial of mavacamten versus placebo in symptomatic patients with obstructive HCM was performed. Baseline characteristics were compared with t tests for continuous variables (expressed as mean values) and χ2 tests for categorical variables. Prespecified primary, secondary, and exploratory end points and echocardiographic measurements from baseline to end of treatment (week 30) were analyzed with ANCOVA for continuous end points and a generalized linear model with binomial distribution for binary end points, with adjustment for the baseline of each outcome, New York Heart Association class, β-blocker use, and ergometer type.